Айтжанова Жаныл Маратовна
ГКП на ПВХ «Школа-лицей № 62»
In 1869, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev published his finished diagram of the periodic table in the journal of the Russian Chemical Society and sent a notice of the opening to the world’s leading scientists. In the future, the chemist more than once refined it and perfected the scheme until it acquired a familiar look.
Integrated subject-language approach to learning (Content and Language Integrated Learning)
The technology CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning: subject-specific integrated learning) is one of the types of bilingual education and has already been successfully used in 20 European countries. Thanks to the implementation of the CLIL methodology, linguistic and communicative competences are developed taking into account the modern format necessary for the successful personal, general cultural and professional development of students. CLIL in the classroom provides the opportunity to interact in a foreign language, and it does not require additional time in the curriculum. The success of the promotion of trilingual education is largely due to the quality of its methodological support. The key position is taken by the choice of the optimal teaching method, which is the internationally recognized integrated language and subject learning technology, known as the CLIL technology. Particular attention is paid to the study and development of this technology by future teachers in the process of their professional training. The article briefly describes the essence of the Kazakhstan model of trilingual education, the potential of CLIL technology in promoting the ideas of trilingual in the educational process, as well as the results of a sociological survey among students and teachers of pedagogical specialties of universities that are directly related to the implementation of trilingual education in the Republic of Kazakhstan
CLIL consists of four C:
- CONTENT (Content) is the knowledge, skills, and skills of the subject area that are progressing;
- COMMUNICATION is the ability to use a foreign language when learning;
- СOGNITION (Cognition) — is the development of cognitive and mental abilities, which form a common presentation (concrete or abstract);
- CULTURE (Culture) is the presentation of oneself as part of a culture, as well as the adoption of alternative cultures.
Methods of integrated education in grades 7-9 of secondary school 2.1 Conditions for the integration of foreign and subject content of the studied subjects in the secondary school education process The term CLIL — Content and Language Integrated Learning is often used to describe the method of teaching subject assistance of a foreign language, the main purpose of which is to study the subject and improve language skills in a foreign language. This method is not new in Europe. It has long been practiced by various schools of European countries, such as Finland, Hungary, the Baltic countries, such as Lithuania, Estonia. The successful application of CLIL in these countries gives us reason to believe that this method is quite potential. One of the advantages of this method is that it has no limitations in improving language skills and subject knowledge. CLIL also provides students with the opportunity to develop their intercultural knowledge.
This method also helps to use other learning strategies, apply innovative methods and learning technologies and increases motivation to learn subjects and a foreign language from students. In addition to the benefits already listed, CLIL provides an opportunity to enhance foreign language learning without requiring additional hours in the curriculum. When planning a training program using CLIL, 4C is usually taken into account: content (content), communication (communication), awareness (mental abilities), culture (culturological knowledge). In addition, there are five aspects that are implemented differently depending on the age of the students, the socio-linguistic environment and the degree of immersion in CLIL.
- Cultural aspect 2. Social aspect 3. Language aspect
- Subject aspect 5. Learning aspect
The use of this technique in practice allowed us to identify its advantages, as well as some problems of implementation in the educational process. One of the main advantages of this technique is to increase the motivation to learn a foreign language from students. Language learning becomes more focused, as the language is used to solve specific communication problems. In addition, students have the opportunity to better learn and understand the culture of the language being studied, which leads to the formation of the socio-cultural competence of students. The student passes through a sufficiently large amount of language material, which is a complete immersion in the natural language environment. It should also be noted that the work on various topics allows you to learn specific terms, certain language constructs, which contributes to the vocabulary replenishment of the subject subject terminology and prepares him for further study and application of acquired knowledge and skills [Krasheninnikova 2013].
Figure — periodic system of chemical elements
Periodic DI Mendeleev was the most important milestone in the development of atomic-molecular learning. Thanks to it, the modern concept of a chemical element has developed, the ideas about simple substances and compounds have been refined.
The predictive role of the periodic system, shown by Mendeleev himself, in the 20th century was manifested in the assessment of the chemical properties of transuranic elements.
The organization and use of the integrated language-education in the 8th grade of secondary school
Developed in the 19th century as part of the science of chemistry, the periodic table was a ready systematization of the types of atoms for new branches of physics that were developed at the beginning of the 20th century — atomic physics and nuclear physics. In the course of atomic research using the methods of physics, it was found that the ordinal number of an element in the periodic table, also called the Mendeleev number, (atomic number) is a measure of the electric charge of the atomic nucleus of this element, the number of the horizontal row (period) in the table determines the number of electron shells of the number of the vertical row is the quantum structure of the upper shell, to which the elements of this row are due to the similarity of chemical properties.
The emergence of the periodic system and the discovery of the periodic law opened a new, truly scientific era in the history of chemistry and a number of related sciences — instead of scattered information about the elements and compounds DI Mendeleev and his followers created a coherent system, based on which it became possible to summarize, draw conclusions, to anticipate. By decision of the UN, 2019 is declared the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements.
The object of research: To help students develop linguistic and communicative competences in the process of studying chemical terminology in English, to memorize and apply the proposed terminology by 90–100%.
The subject of research: 100 high-school students of 8th-grade in four classes.
Duration of study: the study will be conducted two month.
Proposed techniques: Diagnostics by the method of J. Bruner, identifying an elementary level in 8th grade students for understanding and knowledge of terminology in English.
Description of changes of CLIL methods in practice and data collection.
The analysis of the experience on the research problem [1,2] made it possible to introduce changes in the practice of teaching the subject in 2 quarters. To memorize chemical terminology in English, the range of CLIL techniques has been expanded (Appendix 1): the use of synonyms, antonyms, pictures, drawing, gesturing; ABC dictation, Explain meaning, Race, Silent video, T / F dictation, re-packing.
Observing students, talking with a teacher, analyzing formative works in chemistry, testing and interviewing students revealed little progress in the development of communication skills and memorizing chemical terminology in English :
Description of changes in practice and data collection.
The following were chosen as the observed students: A (high indicators for 2 types of thinking: sign, figurative), B (average for all types of thinking), C (high indicators for 3 types of thinking: symbolic, symbolic, figurative) . Selected students did not have the skills of «subject» speaking.
(Table 1): Effectiveness of CLIL Technician depending on the type of thinking
|Type of thinking||CLIL Techniques|
|High level of symbolic, subject and sign thinking||Working with crosswords, tables, diagrams in the process of cumulative conversation, “Explain the value”|
|High level of imaginative and creative thinking||Role-playing, «true-false», «Race», Silent video|
Appendix Atomic Structure Worksheet.
Fill in the blanks for the elements in this chart. For the purposes of this chart, round all atomic masses to the nearest whole number. (Table 2):
|Element||Number of Protons||Number of Neutrons||Number of Electrons||Atomic Mass||Atomic Number|
Fill the blanks
Keywords: the periodic system of chemical elements, atomic numbers, symbols, period, group, family, eighteen, outer shell, number, valence electrons.
…..the periodic system of chemical elements (the periodic table) is a classification of chemical elements that establishes the dependence of various properties of elements on their charge of the atomic nucleus. When the elements are arranged in the order of increasing. atomic numbers, there is a periodic repetition in the properties of these elements. A simple periodic table contains the symbols, atomic numbers and the relative atomic masses of the elements. Each horizontal row in the Periodic table is called a period. Each vertical column in the Periodic table is called a group.
Find the match
|1) Each vertical column in the Periodic table is called…….||a) ………is a composed of two parts. There is a nucleus between them. It looks like a «dumbbel» or «infinity sign»|
|2) p-orbital||b)Each horizontal row in the in the Periodic table is called…….|
|3) Most active nonmetals||c) metalloids|
|4) period||d) group|
|5) The number of electrons in the outershell is also known as……||e) As|
|6) Some elements have properties of metals and nonmetals more at the same time. Such elements are called……||f)Since the chemical and physical properties of the elements in a group are similar, they are sometimes also called a ……..|
|7) s-orbital||g) Halogens are the……|
|8) Date of creation of the periodic law||h) 1s22s22p63s23p5|
|9) 1s22s22p4||j)Valence electrons|
|10) family||k) There are only two elements………, in the Periodic table that are liquid at room temperature.|
Division into groups:
1 row of elements-brick-red color and the same color on the table plate with the inscription Alkali metal
2 row — orange, Alkaline earth metal
3 rows-green, metalloid
4 rows — red, Transition metal
5 row — blue, Non-metal
These three examples show different tasks, how to find a match, that is, students knowing the terminology and topics should find a match between substances and their properties. Thus, this task develops the students ’horizons, thinking and trains the memory for memorizing chemical terms and their properties. In the task “fill in the missing words,” students ponder on the proposed keywords before inserting them into sentences. Thus, this task develops the students ’horizons, thinking and trains the memory for memorizing chemical terms and their properties. In the task “to fill the table”, the students calculate, rely on the periodic table and enter the necessary values. This task is also on the knowledge of chemical terminology, the understanding of the periodic table.
The first and the most important step in learning chemistry starts from the study of the periodic table. As it was considered above, periodic table contains huge information itself about chemical and physical characteristics of every atoms and substances. The importance of effective study of the periodic table has been considered by many scientists and researchers in the world. There are different techniques and methods to interest and motivate students in their study of chemistry, in which this table plays the first and main role. My further work is to study the effectiveness of the implementation of these techniques, for an easy and interesting study of the periodic table.