A modern teenager lives in a world that is complex in its content and socialization trends. This is connected, firstly, with the pace and rhythm of technical and technological transformations that impose new requirements on growing people. Secondly, with a rich character of information, which creates a mass of “noises”, deeply affecting a teenager, who has not yet developed a clear life position. Thirdly, with the environmental and economic crises that hit our society, which causes a sense of hopelessness and irritation in children.At the same time, young people develop a feeling of protest, often unconscious, and at the same time their individualization grows, which, with the loss of general social interest, leads to selfishness. Adolescents more than other age groups suffer from the instability of the social, economic and moral situation in the country, having lost the necessary orientation in values and ideals, the old ones are destroyed, the new ones are not created.
The personality of a teenager is not formed by itself, but in his environment. Particularly important is the role of small groups in which a teenager interacts with other people. First of all, it concerns the family. Different authors identify different types of dysfunctional families, where there are children with deviations in behavior. These classifications do not contradict, but complement, sometimes repeating each other.
Lichko A.E. identifies 4 unfavorable situations in the family: 1) over-reliance of various degrees: from the desire to be an accomplice to all manifestations of the inner life of children (his thoughts, feelings, behavior) to family tyranny; 2) hypoopia, often turning into neglect; 3) a situation that creates a “family idol” – constant attention to any impulse of the child and unreasonable praise for very modest successes; 4) the situation that creates “Cinderellas” in the family – there are many families where parents pay much attention to themselves and few children .
At the origin of scientific research on family education was PF Lesgaft. The aim of all education, he believed to promote the development of a reasonable person who would be able to combine past life experience with real life and be able to foresee the consequences of his actions and attitudes to another person, find out the causal relationship of the phenomena observed by him and creatively predict and manifest what it is precisely the human wisdom that is expressed.
Thus, the full development of all the natural inclinations of abilities, the formation of a rational, free human personality is possible for every healthy person whose childhood and adolescence take place in normal human conditions. What are these conditions?
The first.The atmosphere of love. A person should be conceived in love, vynoshen and born in love and spend all his childhood in an atmosphere of love and mutual respect of people. A person deprived of this feeling is not able to respect his relatives, fellow citizens, Motherland, to do good to people. At the same time, Lesgaft warned that blind unreasonable maternal love, “hammering a child worse than the rod,” makes a person an immoral consumer or an ambitious careerist .
The second.A highly moral educator who teaches a child to reflect, to be truthful, to observe the unity of word and deed. The best is if this role is performed by the mother, but it can also be a non-native caretaker, in the care of which there should be no more than 6-7 children. (Modern psychologists have established that it is with this number of children that an educator can simultaneously maintain emotional contact). Third.Regular joyful socially useful work in the presence of a child. Constantly watching the work of adults, the child begins to imitate it in the game, and then he himself joins the labor process as an assistant, and, finally, as an independent performer.
Fourth. Exclusion of the so-called surplus irritants from the child’s life: luxury, poverty, excessive delicacies, random food, tobacco, alcohol, gambling. A child who is used to experiencing the pleasure of “surplus stimuli” on his brain does not develop a capacity for purposeful activity. And this means that another creative person is buried before he even was born.
The fifth.Harmonious development of all abilities of the child. Listening to fairy tales, music, songs should be replaced by physical exercises, games, work in the garden, classes of national toys – reading poetry, playing chess – drawing, modeling. After all, no one knows in which area of human activity a special talent can manifest itself, given by nature only to this child. This means that he must come into contact with the maximum of occupations in order to determine his vocation over time. And the “disservice” is provided by those parents who, according to their own arbitrariness, program their life path in advance.
The sixth.The principle of gradualism and consistency. The teacher must constantly ensure that the child was taken only for those things that are currently feasible for him. Otherwise he will lose interest in his studies, laziness will appear. As the child grows and develops, the activities should become more and more difficult and difficult.
Seventh.Protecting the child from contact with immoral people. The most important method of mastering the knowledge and experience of a child is imitation. The instinct of imitation makes the child try to reproduce all the actions and deeds of the people around him. Reproduced – means mastered. Only at the end of the period of family education, that is, at about 7 years old, does the child develop his own (moral principles) and can evaluate the behavior and actions of the people around him. Therefore, adults who love a child and wish him well should strictly control his every step so as not to serve him as an example of immoral behavior.
Family distress, the consequence of which is the deformation of the process of socialization and the formation of the child’s personality, leads to an increase in social and environmental maladjustment of children and adolescents. The social maladjustment of an individual must be understood as the inability of an individual to adequately respond to the demands placed on him, which are based on expectations that correspond to his social status and his place in a particular system of established interpersonal relationships, including his inability to put into practice socially – historically developed ways and the capabilities necessary to meet their own needs (in a broad sense).
LITERATURE:1. Lichko A.E., Popov Yu.V. Delinquent behavior, alcoholism and substance abuse in adolescents. Moscow, 1988.
- Lesgaft P.F. Family education of the child and its value. : Pedagogy, 1991.
3. Vasiliev, V.P. Legal psychology. – SPb., 1997. – 79s.
студентка 1 курса,
АРГУ им. К. Жубанова,
учитель первой категории
КГУ СШГ №9